Operational Update – Spring 2017

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Improving Water Quality on the Gettysburg Battlefield

Trail near Patterson pasture

A runner along the Taneytown Road Trail with the Patterson pasture in the background.

“We all live downstream.” You have probably heard this before and it is very true. The quality of the water we drink, the waters we swim in on a hot summer day and the waters we fish in is determined by our upstream neighbors. During the Civil War more soldiers died of diseases than as a direct result of battle action. Many of those diseases were water-borne such as dysentery, cholera and hepatitis. The waterways that flowed through the Gettysburg battlefield in 1863 still flow through it today. The soldiers drank from Rock Creek, Plum Run, Willoughby Run and other waterways and springs. Would you drink directly from these waters?

PattersonPastureBlogMapToday’s modern day threats to clean water are numerous. Gettysburg and surrounding Adams County are located within the watershed of the Chesapeake Bay, a bay famous as a nursery for things that we humans love to eat such as crabs, oysters and tasty fish. The bay

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Biologist Dafna Reiner at one of the new stone crossings over Patterson Branch.

has also become infamous for “dead zones” like the one a few years ago that caused a massive fish kill of over a quarter of a million fish. These dead zones are caused by too much nitrogen and phosphorus. The most common source of this over nitrification is agricultural runoff from fertilizers and animal waste. The National Park Service is entrusted with the responsibility of being a good steward of the Gettysburg battlefield and along with that comes the responsibility of taking care of the waters that flow through it, waters that eventually drain downstream into the Chesapeake Bay.

Patterson Pasture

Looking west from the Patterson pasture, with the Patterson house in the background.  Taneytown Road is just beyond the house.

In 2016 Gettysburg National Military Park partnered with the Natural Resources Conservation Service and Adams County Conservation District to protect the waters that flow through one of the park’s active pastures. The Patterson Pasture is home to 15 horses for seven months during the growing season. Visitors can see this pasture as they walk the paved trail along Taneytown road, close to where it turns to cross Taneytown Rd into Pleasonton Ave. A grant to the permit holder who leases this pasture from the park funded the installation of a fence and two stone crossings. The fence excludes the horses from a

Patterson House 2017

The Patterson house with its surrounding pasture. This photo was taken from the field just across Taneytown Road.

forested corridor along a murmuring waterway that runs through the pasture. Excluding horses from this corridor eliminates soil erosion into the stream and deposition of animal waste into and close to the waterway. The two stone crossings give the horses access to both sides of the pasture and to drinking water. Less nitrogen input from animal waste and less erosion mean cleaner waters inside the park, cleaner waters for the park’s neighbors downstream and for the fish and wildlife who call the Chesapeake Bay home.

Dafna Reiner, Biologist, Gettysburg National Military Park, March 23, 2017

Posted in Battlefield Farms, Natural History | Tagged , | 2 Comments

“The enemy were on the gun and limber…” Gunner John Norwood’s narrow escape at Gettysburg.

One of most harrowing stories of the battle of Gettysburg is the experience of the 9th Massachusetts Battery. Told again and again through publications and by the monuments that mark the battery’s position at the park, it’s near destruction adjacent to the Abraham Trostle farm buildings on July 2, 1863, was documented not only in reports by the survivors but also by Alexander Gardner’s camera- the disturbing photograph of bloated carcasses of artillery horses splayed over the site of the battery’s last stand that horrid afternoon.

Trostle Farm 1863

The Abraham Trostle Farm house photographed by Alexander Gardner soon after the battle, the scene where the 9th Massachusetts Battery made its final stand on July 2, 1863. (LOC)

After retiring by prolong from their first position on the Wheatfield Road, the battery halted to limber their guns in the small orchard south of the Trostle farm buildings. But in the mad dash through the gate in the stone wall near the house, the first gun overturned, completely blocking the only way out. Though an additional piece was able to drive over the wall itself to escape, the remaining four were trapped. Immediately the gunners unlimbered “into battery” and the fight for their very lives began as the 21st Mississippi Infantry swept upon them like a lightning bolt.

It was unrestrained violence. Blasts of canister from the guns were answered by a storm of rifle fire that laced man and animal alike. Harnessed to their limbers, the horses fell in heaps, their groans of alarm mixed with the hellish roar of guns and small arms, shouting gunners and drivers, and the high pitched rebel yell. Captain John Bigelow, commanding the doomed battery, was shot from his horse and looked up to see gray-clad Mississippians standing on the limbers, shooting point blank into his trapped gunners and drivers, all scrambling to escape the trap in this bloody corner of Trostle’s orchard.

Veteran John Norwood

(Lawrence Biographical Register)

In the tumult of battle, gunner John K. Norwood was serving his piece when every gunner around him was shot down. Born in Maine, the twenty four year-old Norwood had moved to Lawrence, Massachusetts to start a new life and was a clerk in a dry goods business when he volunteered for service in 1862. He and several others from Lawrence were assigned to the 9th Battery, in which he proved efficient enough to be a gunner. The somewhat harsh and difficult training he and his mates had received under Captain John Bigelow the previous winter had served him well in his first major battle but nothing could have prepared him for this- a tide of howling Confederates bent on destroying him and those who stood by the guns and limbers.

Orders were shouted to get out as quickly as possible and as he and a driver were desperately trying to limber the number five gun, Norwood, “was shot through the lungs,” the bullet crashing through his chest and lodging near his spine. “No one else there and the remaining horses shot(,) the enemy were on the gun and limber, and a color bearer mounted the limber and waved his flag.” Norwood collapsed by the trail of gun, the melee continuing around him as he crawled under the piece to take advantage of what little shelter it offered. Fortunately, Private Ralph Blaidsell, unharmed at the moment, saw his comrade fall and crawled to Norwood as the Confederates passed through the wreckage in pursuit of retreating Federals. Blaidsell instructed Norwood to lay still, he would follow the Confederate line to fetch water for his wounded comrade. The handful of Confederates milling about let Blaidsell pass to bring water back to Norwood and during a brief lull in the fighting, assisted the wounded soldier, “fifty yards to the shelter of a large tree and bowlder(sic) under it.” In the final minutes of the fighting at dusk, retreating Confederates took shelter on the other side of the boulder and fired over it at pursuing Federal troops who recaptured the battery’s abandoned guns. [i]

Norwood's Rock- Holland sketch

Holland’s sketch of the severely wounded Pvt. Norwood behind the boulder in Trostle’s field. (S. McClintock Collection)

Unable to be taken off the field that night, the weak and exhausted Norwood stayed behind the shelter of the boulder “where he lay and kept the wound wet all night” with the precious water Blaidsell had brought him. Early the next morning and with the assistance of a Confederate skirmisher, Norwood stumbled into the Trostle house to take shelter along with a handful of other wounded men. It was not until that evening could the severely injured soldiers be reached and taken to a farm on the Baltimore Pike.[i]

Norwood survived his terrible wound but never returned to the battery or the army. Discharged for disability on February 1, 1864, he went home to Lawrence with the Confederate bullet that Union surgeons could not extract without killing him still lodged in his chest. It would be another three years before he was strong enough to try his hand at business again. In 1867, Mr. Norwood opened an insurance company in Lawrence, the same year his son Kendall was born followed by a daughter ten years later. The prosperous businessman was elected president of civic organizations, active in the Grand Army of the Republic as a member in good standing of GAR Post 39 in Lawrence, and soon after elected president of the 9th Massachusetts Battery Association.

In the spring of 1883, for the first time since the battle, John Norwood stood again on the spot where his battery met their bloody test and where he barely survived the gunshot wound through his lungs. As part of an excursion to mark the locations for Massachusetts monuments at Gettysburg, it was his responsibility to agree on the site where the battery’s monument should stand. His visit had to be somewhat of a shock for the battlefield had changed over time and a disagreement ensued with John Bachelder, the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association’s historian, on where the monument should go. Not satisfied with Colonel Bachelder’s choice, he returned the following year with a committee composed of former members of the battery. Among them was veteran Richard Holland of North Bridgewater (Brockton, MA), an Irish-born immigrant who had settled in Massachusetts and answered the same call for volunteers in 1862 as did Norwood. It was a congenial relationship that began during their first weeks in service with the 9th Massachusetts Battery.

Holland was one three artists who served with the battery; Charles Reed and Isaac Eaton being the other two, both recognized in the post war period for their soldier art while Holland enjoyed drawing and painting landscapes. As the men walked the field where their old battery had fought, the stories of each man’s experiences were passed and as they stood near the corner of the fateful field near Trostle’s house, Norwood related his experience in taking shelter behind the large boulder under the tree and how he survived the night, finishing his description of the farm on the Baltimore Pike where he was taken to for medical care.

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Holland’s second sketch of Norwood behind his boulder near the Trostle House. (S. McClintock Collection)

Returning to Massachusetts, the committee proposed not just one monument but three to mark where the battery had so valiantly served on July 2 and 3 on the Gettysburg battlefield. The additions were reviewed and approved by the state committee.  Dedicated on October 19, 1885, the monument to the 9th Massachusetts Battery stands on the Wheatfield Road with second position markers in Ziegler’s Grove and at the Trostle Farm next to the site of the gateway that foiled the battery’s escape from Barksdale’s Mississippians on July 2.

After a remarkable and successful life, Mr. Norwood passed away in 1914 at the age of 77 years and was buried in Bellevue Cemetery in Lawrence, the southern bullet that almost killed him at Gettysburg still lodged in his chest. Fortunately the remarkable story of his night on the field of battle and the boulder that sheltered him was preserved in the history of the battery written by Levi Baker, published in 1888.

Norwood's boulder, Trotle Farm

The boulder that sheltered the wounded Norwood, March 2017 (Gettysburg NMP)

Something about his comrade’s story must have inspired Holland who compiled a sketchbook of Gettysburg subjects soon after their visit to the field in 1883 that included water color illustrations of John Norwood and his protector- the large granite boulder and tall tree adjacent to Trostles’ orchard. The tree that shaded the injured soldier has long been gone from this site and though time and weather have played hard on this particular boulder, which fits perfectly in the field among other rocks and rounded blocks of granite that jut through the soil, it is different because it has a personal story. And now, a specific identity.

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Norwood’s boulder near the Trostle House, March 2017 (Gettysburg NMP)

Like so many of the silent witnesses of the battlefield, it takes time and sometimes a good dose of luck to uncover that unique story and be able to share it. Mr. Holland and Mr. Norwood would not have it any other way.

-John Heiser
Gettysburg National Military Park

Author’s note: Richard Holland’s work fell into obscurity after his death in Brockton, Massachusetts, in 1905 though several paintings he did for the Brockton City Hall are still on exhibition there today.  We sincerely thank Mrs. Selma McClintock for the loan of his sketches to illustrate our story.

[i] Levi W. Baker, History of the Ninth Massachusetts Battery (Framingham, MA: Lakeview Press, 1888), p.75.

[i] Ibid., p.75

Posted in 9th Massachusetts Battery, Battlefield Farms, Battlefield Legends and Lore, Gettysburg Art, Historical Memory, Veterans | Tagged , | 6 Comments

Announcing the Great Task Youth Leadership Experience!

Attention Youth, Youth Leaders and Educators!

Do want to make a difference in your community,  your school and in the lives of others?

Gettysburg can help.

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The Gettysburg National Military Park and the Gettysburg Foundation are very excited to announce a brand new youth leadership and service program entitled the Great Task Youth Leadership Experience, which is designed to help inspire civic engagement through the study of history. Borrowing the phrase made famous by President Abraham Lincoln in his immortal Gettysburg Address, the Gettysburg Great Task Youth Leadership Experience is an intensive two-day program geared specifically toward high school-aged students and their teachers who wish to make a positive impact in their schools, their communities, and in the lives of others. Participants of the Great Task Youth Leadership Experience will learn about the actions, the decision, and, most importantly, the leadership demonstrated by ordinary individuals confronted with the extraordinary challenges presented by the Battle of Gettysburg, the bloodiest battle of the American Civil War. By examining these actions and then recreating them, participating students will be able to then identify and develop their own leadership skills and be inspired by the lessons they learn while on the battlefield to make a positive difference in their own lives.

Working closely with National Park Service Rangers and Educators, participants will learn how soldiers, doctors, and ordinary civilians rose to the occasion and demonstrated great leadership when confronted with the crises experienced during the Battle of Gettysburg—and learn how examples from the past can still be applied to the challenges of today.

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But the Great Task is much, much more than just a learning experience; indeed, we want to see how the leadership lessons learned here can make a difference in your schools or communities. We want to see how  participating students complete their “Great Task.

To that end, student groups or teachers who wish to participate must first identify what their “Great Task” will be. Perhaps it will be to clean up and maintain a community playground or park, or maybe to establish an anti-bullying program in school. Perhaps a group will wish to facilitate volunteer programs in their communities, or set up a special tutoring center for younger children at their school Truly there is no end to all the Great Tasks that can be identified and accomplished.

After having decided upon a Great Task, groups can then apply to attend one of our Great Task Youth Leadership Experience weekends, which will be offered every weekend from mid-July to early October. Accommodation grants and financial assistance is available for qualifying groups. For additional information and to apply, please visit http://www.gettysburgfoundation.org/288/

Please be aware that this is an intensive experience and we expect to see results! After attending one of our Great Task Youth Leadership Experiences students will report back to us on how they are applying the lessons they learned at Gettysburg in meeting their goals and in rising to their own occasion to achieve their Great Task.  In turn, their efforts and accomplishments will then be recognized on the “Great Task” wall inside the Gettysburg National Military Park Museum and Visitor Center and their efforts will also be shared on the Park’s social media pages.  In addition, each participating group will be nominated for the “Great Task” Student Leadership Award. This new annual award will be presented to leaders of the best community or school leadership projects of the year. Award winners will receive $500 in grants to support their Great Task projects.

For more information, including testimonials of previous participants, please watch the video below and be sure to visit here.

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The Curious Story of a Long Lost Valentine’s Day Poem

This Valentine’s Day poem comes from our archive collection…

 

Well! Thou art happy, and I feel

That I should thus be happy too;

For still my heart regard thy weal

Warmly as it was wont to do.

Thy sway’s blest and twill impart

Some pangs to view her happier lot

but let them pass, oh! how my heart

Would hate her if she loved thee not!

Away! Away! my fondest dream,

Remembrance never must awake:

Oh! Where is Lethe’s fabled stream?

My foolish heart, be still or break.

Peace to that heart, tho’ another’s it be

and bloom to that cheek tho’ it bloom not for me

Feb 14th                             Valentine

 

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The first half of the Valentine’s Day poem.

 

Of the thousands of Civil War era documents in our collection, this one is somewhat peculiar. It’s simply a piece of paper with a rather curious Valentine’s Day poem written on it and an envelope that is addressed to Charles Capen, Esq. of Dedham, Mass., it’s dated Feb. 15, and it was mailed in Dedham, Mass. No other pertinent information exists.

 

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The second half of the Valentine’s Day poem.

 

This begs the question, why do we have this rather non-descript poem in our archives collection when there are no obvious connections to the Battle of Gettysburg or the Civil War? There isn’t even a year associated with this document. This was a question that needed to be answered, so we started digging. It’s what we do. Sure enough, just like peeling back the many layers of an onion, this simple document began to reveal a very robust story.

 

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The Valentine’s Day poem was mailed in this envelope.

 

As it turns out, this document is one of many that the park acquired as part of the vast Rosensteel Collection. The Rosensteel family began collecting artifacts from the Gettysburg battlefield as soon as the guns fell silent. By the 1880s they, like other local families, established a private artifact and souvenir stand to cater to the growing number of tourists coming to see the battlefield. By the 1920s, the family had constructed a home on Taneytown Road across from the gates of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery and opened a fully operational museum and gift shop in it. The Rosensteels expanded this building over the years to house a growing collection of historical artifacts. In 1972 the National Park Service negotiated to acquire the museum and the entire Rosensteel Collection housed therein. This building would serve as the park visitor center until 2008 when the current visitor center opened.

Over the years, the Rosensteel family collected items that were mainly associated with the Battle of Gettysburg and the Civil War. However, not all items in their collection fit neatly within this rather narrow focus. There were many other items included in their collection that were acquired simply because they were collectible. Some of these items included American furniture, Native American artifacts, Revolutionary era documents, and this Valentine’s Day poem.

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View of the Rosensteel National Museum on Taneytown Road; circa 1939-1945.

The next phase of our research was to find out who was Charles Capen and was he a Civil War veteran. Charles Capen was born in Boston, MA on April 5, 1823. He graduated from Harvard in 1844, became a school teacher, and later principal, in Dedham, MA, a suburb of Boston. He would spend his life dedicated to education, serving as teacher, vice principal, and principal of various schools in the Boston, MA area, including forty-seven years at the Public Latin School of Boston from 1852-1899. He married his wife Lucy Richmond Seaver on April 26, 1848.

He was 38 years old when the Civil War broke out and he registered for the draft in 1863 but was never called to serve. Although we don’t know why he was never called to serve, we can make a few educated guesses. He may have been able to afford a substitute, given his profession and his high standing in local circles, but his age may have also played a role in not getting called to serve. He would have been 40 years old at the time of the draft and during the Battle of Gettysburg.

The final questions dealt with why this Valentine’s Day poem was addressed to him on February 15 and not prior to February 14, and why did the author not sign the poem or provide a return address on the envelope? These answers are not quite as simple or definitive and require delving into the words and meaning of the poem.

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A Valentine’s Day illustration from Harper’s Weekly in 1864.

Take another moment to re-read the poem. Knowing what you now know about Charles Capen, his profession, and his leadership over a student population for many decades, we are led to a certain conclusion about the author of this poem. We know the poem is from an unidentified admirer, it was mailed from the same town as where Charles Capen lived, and it’s dated the day after Valentine’s Day. Based on some of the words and phrases used in its’ construction, we hypothesize that this poem was written by a love-struck student, somewhat distraught over the married bliss of her Mister Charles Capen.

With the background of the story in place, let’s take a closer look at the work itself and its’ general construction, to uncover a few of the hints that led to this hypothesis.

The poem itself is nearly in the form of an English, or Shakespearean, sonnet, consisting of three quatrains of four verses, and closing with a rhyming couplet. However, a traditional English sonnet strives for 10-syllable lines, as it places emphases on particular ones. These are a bit harder to construct than the (mostly) 8-syllable lines used by our poet, who is not shy in revealing her feelings from the first word –

NOTE: The following are evidences of a student crafted poem with corrections/suggestions in parentheses. 

Well! Thou art happy, and I feel

(Well! – Very accusatory; you can almost feel the pointing finger)

That I should thus be happy too;

Perhaps this is an admission that Charles Capen is happily married and that his admirer should also be happy as well or happy for him.

Thy sway’s blest and twill impart

(“Thy sway’s” refers to “Your influence is” and “twill” refers to “will”)

Some pangs to view her happier lot

(Some pangs viewing her “bless′ed” lot)

but let them pass, oh! how my heart

(But, let them pass; Oh! How my heart)

Would hate her if she loved thee not!

The admirer has seen Charles Capen and his wife Lucy together and their happiness towards one another is obvious. There is even an admission of how the admirer “Would hate her” if Lucy did not love Charles.

Away! Away! my fondest dream,

Remembrance never must awake:

Rough syllable alignment here, should read (“ne’er must awake:”). Is this an attempt by the admirer to squelch her feelings towards Charles Capen?

Oh! Where is Lethe’s fabled stream?

(Repetition of “Oh!,” should use  “Ah!” instead)

My foolish heart, be still or break.

According to Greek mythology “Lethe’s fabled stream” refers to a river in Hades that caused forgetfulness to those who drank its waters. Is the admirer attempting to wish away or forget her affection toward Charles? The origin of the word Lethe is Greek, but it was a staple of Latin as well. Remember Charles Capen spent much of his professional life teaching and working at the Public Latin School of Boston.

In Shakespearean sonnets, the closing couplet is the portion where the author attempts to conclude all the meaning into one final conclusion.  Here, however, the double meaning of the message is evident, perhaps in more than one way. To the author, the sad tragedy of unrequited love is mixed with the reluctant acknowledgement by the admirer that her love for Charles will never happen and that his love and affection clearly lies only with his wife Lucy.

Peace to that heart, tho’ another’s it be

and bloom to that cheek tho’ it bloom not for me

(“and” should be “And”, but she was understandably emotional)

For many, Valentine’s Day is time to spend with the love of your life, your best friend, your soul mate. For others however, Valentine’s Day can be a day of longing and of sadness for those who have passed or for those who have given their heart to another. This poem reminds us that not all battles are fought on the battlefield. Many battles of the heart are won or lost on Valentine’s Day.

 


Contributors

Jason Martz – Visual Information Specialist

Bert Barnett – Park Ranger and Staff Poet

Greg Goodell – Museum Curator

Ela Thompson – Intern

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Standing Where They Stood – Looking Through Windows in Time

The art of photography dates back nearly 200 years when men like Nicephore Niepce and Louis Daguerre (of Daguerreotype fame) were instrumental in establishing the art form in the 1820s and 1830s. In the early days of photography it would take anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours to properly capture the moment. As technology and methods evolved, photographers became more and more adept at their craft. The onset of the Civil War pushed photographers like Mathew Brady, Alexander Gardner, Timothy O’Sullivan, and James Gibson to travel with the clashing armies in order to visually capture and chronical the war in ways that had never been experienced before. They built mobile dark rooms on wagons and were able to quickly (for the day) process their pictures and deliver them to their studios and to eager newspapers.

A New York Times article in October 1862 illustrates the impression these images left upon the American populace:

“Mr. Brady has done something to bring home to us the terrible reality and earnestness of war. If he has not brought bodies and laid them in our door-yards and along our streets, he has done something very like it…”

Technology has continued unabated over the centuries and decades since but, let’s face it, we live in a selfie world now. Most choose not to carry bulky cameras, instead choosing the slim, do-it-all, smart phone in order to capture all of life’s important moments. These moments are then often uploaded to an ever growing variety of social media platforms in order to check-in and tag each other to prove that we were there.

Yet, even with all our technological advances with cameras, smartphones, and editing software, we are still drawn back to those amazingly detailed original photographs taken between 1861 and 1865 – specifically those few dozen pictures that were taken of battle ravaged Gettysburg.

For many, these photographs conjure feelings of awe and amazement along with sadness and despair. These feelings are often magnified when people realize they can stand on the same ground – and see the same things – that Gardner, O’Sullivan, and Gibson did when they took their unforgettable images in July 1863. It is with these unforgettable photographs in mind, and a nod to the men whose timeless images evoke such strong emotions, that we bring you this post. This is our attempt to look back through the windows of time.

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The Trostle House.

Imagine standing in the yard of the Trostle Farm just a few days after the battle. To your left stands their brick bank barn, recently damaged by a Confederate shell, and near where Union Maj. Gen. Dan Sickles suffered a severe leg injury that would require amputation. To your right is the Trostle house where numerous dead horses still lie in the hot July sun. The stench of their rotting flesh is unbearable. These horses are all that is left of the courageous stand made by the 9th Massachusetts (Bigelow’s) Battery on July 2. In an attempt to stave off the advancing forces from Kershaw and Barksdale’s Confederate brigades, the men of Bigelow’s Battery fought desperately before they were overrun and forced to retreat to Cemetery Ridge. Their sacrifice provided valuable time for Union reinforcements to form along Cemetery Ridge and helped thwart the Confederate attack in this area.

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Meade’s Headquarters along the Taneytown Road.

Now, imagine standing astride the Taneytown Road near the small house where Union Maj. Gen. George G. Meade made his headquarters during the battle. Late in the evening of July 2, Meade held a council of war to decide if the Union army should stay and hold their hard-fought high ground or abandon their position. The council of war decided to stay. Late in the afternoon of July 3, Confederate batteries concentrated their missiles on the center of Cemetery Ridge in an attempt to soften up the Union position. Unbeknownst to the Confederate artillerymen, their rounds overshot their intended targets and began to land around Meade’s headquarters causing substantial damage. Although the commanding general moved to a safer location, evidence of the bombardment is everywhere. The house and surrounding fences are all damaged and again, dead horses lay in various stages of rigormortis in the center of the Taneytown Road.

In the end, these photographers did bring “…bodies and laid them in our door-yards and along our streets…” as the New York Times article described.

 


These pictures of the Gettysburg battlefield are not the only local pictures that can bring a sense of awe and amazement to interested visitors. Taken nearly a century later, at what is now Eisenhower National Historic Site, Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower were photographed thousands of times at their home and farm along the south-western corner of the battlefield. They relaxed at home, worked on the farm, cared for their livestock, entertained family and friends, and met with guests, politicians, and diplomats from around the globe. These pictures were taken in and around the only home that the President and First Lady ever owned together.

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Dwight and Mamie Eisenhower spending time with their grandchildren in 1956.

September 16, 1956 – During a press photo-op, Ike and Mamie posed with their grandchildren in their Crosley Runabout near the putting green installed by the PGA (Professional Golfers Association).

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Dwight D. Eisenhower is seen with the King and Queen of Nepal in 1967.

November 1967 – Dwight D. Eisenhower is seen exiting the front door of his home with the King and Queen of Nepal during their visit to the farm.

These four pictures are but a sampling that we have created for this picture-in-picture concept for both Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site. We will be releasing more of these pictures over the course of the next several weeks on our social media platforms. We will then make all of these pictures available on our websites as well.


Our websites and social media platforms can be found at the links below:

Gettysburg National Military Park

Website

Facebook

Twitter

Instagram

Eisenhower National Historic Site

Website

Facebook

Instagram

Search #ThenAndNow to follow along via social media.


 

Jason Martz – Visual Information Specialist

Gettysburg National Military Park

I would like to thank Ali Wright and Grace Crawford, Visual Information Specialist Interns, for their fantastic picture-in-picture work.

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The 2017 Gettysburg National Military Park Seminar

A Contrast in Commanders: Meade, Lee, and Their Commands at Gettysburg

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May 12-14, 2017

Presented by The National Park Service, Gettysburg National Military Park,
The Gettysburg Foundation, and the Harrisburg Area Community College
No two men could have been more different from each other. General Robert E. Lee, the gentleman general in command of the highly successful Army of Northern Virginia marched his army across the Potomac to that fateful destiny at Gettysburg. General George Gordon Meade, whose irascible temper and impatience with subordinates, directed his Army of the Potomac northward to intercept Lee and bring the southern army to battle, one that could decide whether the Union lived or died as a broken dream. Army commanders alone do not win a battle by giving orders but depend upon those who lead troops under them, from the highest general down to the most recently promoted colonel. At Gettysburg, officers on both sides excelled while others failed their commanders. The 2017 Gettysburg National Military Park Seminar will examine the leaders of both armies and their subordinates who made crucial decisions in judgment, leadership and ability, and those who failed their commanding officers with the consequences of their actions.

Seminar speakers will include park interpretive rangers, Dr. Jennifer Murray, University of Virginia-Wise Campus, Dr. Timothy Orr, Old Dominion University, and Mr. Garry Adelman, Civil War Trust and Licensed Battlefield Guide.

Cost: $90 per person.

How to Register

Preferred Option: Call the Gettysburg Foundation ticket office, toll free, at 877-874-2478.

You may also visit the Tickets page on the Gettysburg Foundation website. Once on the Tickets page, please follow these steps to register…

  1. Click the arrows on the calendar in the upper right corner of the page until you land on May, 2017.
  2. Once on May, 2017, click on May 12.
  3. Scroll to the bottom of the page and click on the “Buy” button next to the “2017 GNMP Seminar.”

For lodging available in Gettysburg, visit the Destination Gettysburg website.

The Semi-annual Gettysburg National Military Park Seminar is sponsored by the National Park Service and the Gettysburg Foundation with support from the Harrisburg Area Community College-Gettysburg Campus.


2017 SEMINAR PROGRAM

FRIDAY May 12

5:30 – 7 pm: Preregistration at the Museum and Visitor Center.
7 pm: Welcome Remarks.
7:15 pm: Evening Lecture – “His Fame Is Enduring”: George Gordon Meade’s Leadership at Gettysburg – Dr. Jennifer Murray, University of Virginia at Wise.

SATURDAY May 13

Harrisburg Area Community College Campus, Gettysburg

7:30 – 8 am: Registration and Morning Refreshments.
8 – 8:15 am: Welcome and Introduction to Seminar Activities.
8:15 am: “The Shadow of Napoleon upon Lee at Gettysburg” – Chuck Teague, Gettysburg NMP.
9:15 am: “An Army Divided: Party Politics inside the Army of the Potomac.” – Dr. Timothy Orr, Old Dominion University.
10:15 – 10:30 am: Morning break.
10:30 am: “The Material Manifestations of Command; Artifacts of Gettysburg’s Generals” – R. Gregory Goodell, Gettysburg NMP.
11:30 am: “The Queen of Battles Holds Court on A Defensive Battlefield.” – Bert Barnett, Gettysburg NMP.

12:15 to 1:15 pm: Lunch (on your own).

Afternoon Field Programs

1:30 – 3 pm: “Home, Headquarters, Hallowed Ground: The Thompson Farm at Gettysburg” – Garry Adelman, Civil War Trust and Association of Licensed Battlefield Guides
Location: Lee’s Headquarters at Thompson Farm, Buford Avenue.
3:30 – 5:30 pm: “The Eye of the Storm- Meade and the Council of War” – Angie Atkinson, Gettysburg NMP.
Location: Meade’s Headquarters at Leister Farm, Taneytown Road.

Special Afternoon Tour (limited to 42 persons*)

How Active Was Robert E. Lee During the Battle? Finding the General at Gettysburg Troy Harman, Gettysburg NMP.
A ranger guided bus tour will leave from HACC Parking Lot at 1:30 pm sharp. (*There is an additional fee for this tour.)

Saturday Evening Reception

6 – 8:30 pm: Gettysburg Lincoln Railroad Station, 35 Carlisle Street, Gettysburg.

Come and enjoy history, art, music and fellowship with other seminar participants at the historic Lincoln Train Station! An evening picnic meal will be served with a cash bar featuring special drinks from local distillers(?) and music provided by the “Camptown Shakers”. There will also be a special exhibit of battlefield art by one of our participants in the Artist in residence Program at Gettysburg. (Participants should bring tickets and wear name badges for entry.)

SUNDAY May 14

Harrisburg Area Community College Campus, Gettysburg

8:30 – 9 am: Check in and Morning Refreshments.
9 – 10:30 am: The Best Staff in the Army: How James Longstreet Exercised command in the First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia.” – Karlton Smith, Gettysburg NMP.
10:30 – 10:45 am: Break.
10:45 – 11:45 am: “A Lapse in Command: A.P. Hill at Gettysburg.” – Matt Atkinson, Gettysburg NMP.
11:45 – 12 pm: Closing Remarks.

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Gettysburg 2016: A Year in Review

Happy holidays! Here at Gettysburg National Military Park we want to wish all of you a special holiday with friends and family and all the best for the coming new year.

As the National Park Service embarks on its second century of service, Gettysburg National Military Park and Eisenhower National Historic Site are celebrating the significant accomplishments of their centennial celebration and engagement with the Find Your Park / Encuentra Tu Parque initiative.

Here is a look back at 2016 at Gettysburg…click on the graphic below to see the eight-page report.

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Katie Lawhon, December 22, 2016

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Here Men Died for their Country: In the Footsteps of the 136th New York

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On October 16, 1888 the surviving veterans of the 136th New York Volunteers paraded south through the streets of Gettysburg to dedicate their new regimental monument. The ornately sculpted stone, depicting a war-torn tree trunk adorned with the accouterments of an infantryman, had been placed along the shoulder of the Taneytown Road. For three days, July 1, 2, and 3, 1863, the men of the unit occupied the spot, dueling with Confederate skirmishers in the fields to the west, and not infrequently being harassed by sharpshooters lodged in buildings that in the southern end of town. They had participated in virtually no pitched combat and yet, astoundingly, suffered over one hundred casualties including seventeen killed. A testament to the ferocity of the skirmishing the men had engaged in. As one veteran of the regiment would recall, “The losses of a regiment in action are the measure of its sacrifices, not of its services.”

The aged veterans looked out over a landscape that, in most respects, bore a strong resemblance to what they had encountered twenty-five years previous. The odd house and outbuilding, an occasional barn, but mostly open farms fields and orchards. Surely the town had grown, new buildings had been built, new roads laid, and, like their own, monuments had sprung up across the battlefield. Otherwise  Gettysburg retained much of that same sense of place. The road and wall where they had sought shelter, the open field spreading west to the Emmitsburg Road where they battled Confederate skirmishers, the stones in Evergreen Cemetery – all were still there.

“We think and and speak of other fields,” intoned former soldier Clinton H. Miner at the dedication of the monument, “where this band of patriots won other laurels, but not as we think and speak of Gettysburg…and today, after a lapse of a quarter of a century, my comrades, we gather here again, a shorter line ’tis true, than when we last held the Taneytown Road, but patriots still.”

Miner called the spot on which the monument stood, and the fields that surrounded it, “holy ground.” It would be here, the memorial stone along the Taneytown Road, that the memory of the men of the 136th New York would be enshrined and where future generations would come to pay homage.

By the end of the next century much had changed. Open fields where once the men of the 136th had fought, had been paved over. The view-sheds and topography that would have been familiar to the veterans had been altered. Their monument, perched along the edge of an expanded roadway, received only scant visitation.

Yet Gettysburg is a constantly evolving landscape. Recent changes made to the western face of Cemetery Hill, the removal of the old Visitor Center and its associated parking lot, and the re-contouring of the topography around where the 136th fought have opened up the landscape in a way that, perhaps, the veterans of the 136th might appreciate.

We braved the frigid temperatures today to visit the regimental battle-line and memorial of the 136th New York, and using the words of some of them men themselves, retraced this newly rehabilitated section of the Gettysburg battlefield.

 

“We reached Cemetery Hill, one mile south of Gettysburg, and halted. The village was hidden from our sight by a grove of trees, but to the north and east and beyond the town a beautiful landscape was spread before us.”  – Capt. J. W. Hand, 136th NY

img_1809“About midway down the Cemetery we were halted to regain our breath and our first thoughts were of the seeming desecration, as we trod beneath our feet the grass-grown mounds which marked the resting place of the dead…”  – Lt. L. A. Smith, 136th NY

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“On arriving near Gettysburg, the brigade was put into position on Cemetery Hill, near to and south of the village…the position assigned to this regiment was on the left of the brigade, on the road leading from Gettysburg to Taneytown, about 30 yards in front of artillery, placed in position in our rear, on the crest of Cemetery Hill…In the position assigned us, the regiment was deployed in a line of battle behind a stonewall or fence, that fenced out the road from the adjoining field.” – Col. James Wood, 136th NY

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“…What a magnificent panorama was here presented. As far as the eye could reach, until the earth touched the heavens in their convergence, was one expanse of every-varying field and wood, hill and dale, interspersed here and there with farm houses.”  – Lt. L. A. Smith, 136th NY

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“The enemy threw out a strong line of sharpshooters or skirmishers directly in our front, and within musket range of our line. To meet this, a similar line was of sharpshooters or skirmishers was thrown out upon our front toward the enemy….the enemy kept up an almost continuous fire upon our skirmishers…” – Col. James Wood, 136th NY

“The skirmish line was a strong one and a lively exchange of shots took place whenever a relief went out. Most of the losses of our brigade occurred while relieving skirmishers. Another and perhaps greater source of danger was from the enemy’s sharpshooters stationed in the tops of the buildings in the outskirts of town.”  – Capt. J. W. Hand

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The position of a portion of the 136th New York from near the bottom of Cemetery Hill. This location was once the parking lot of the old Visitor Center. The tall trees mark the location of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery.

“On the morning of the third day all was quiet, except for the never ceasing annoyance of the enemies sharpshooters and the occasional aggressive demonstration of his skirmishers. It became evident that Lee was concentrating his forces for an attack on the center of the Union line. At 1 o’clock preparations were complete and a single gun boomed forth the signal.”  – Capt. J. W. Hand, 136th NY

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The distant tree line marks Seminary Ridge. Confederate artillery from along the length of the ridge dueled with Union guns on Cemetery Hill, behind the position of the 136th New York

“If you turned around and looked over the wall toward the enemy each cannon ball seemed directed toward that particular spot.” – Lt. L. A. Smith, 136th NY

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One of the color guard had a fragment of rock driven into his head, causing instant death…most of us hugged the wall closely, occasionally peeping over, but a single glance usually sufficed.” – Lt. L. A. Smith, 136th NY

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The monument to the 136th New York features what appears to be a solid shot embedded into the wood. It appears on the reverse, or western, facing side of the monument indicating that the round came from the direction of Seminary Ridge.

“It is a terrible experience to support batteries when located in their front….I don’t believe men ever suffered more in the same time than those who lay along the road in front of the Cemetery that memorable day…If you sat down with your back to the stone wall and looked over into the Cemetery, you saw long, fiery tongues leaping toward you, thick clouds of sulphurous smoke settle down around you, blackening the countenance almost beyond recognition… History says the artillery duel lasted about two hours. It seemed an age to us; it was an age if you count time, not by minutes and second, but by the amount of nervous suffering and mental agony that can be condensed into a given period.” – Lt. L.A. Smith, 136th New York

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The position of Battery H, 1st Ohio within the grounds of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery. To the left is the monument to the 1st New Hampshire Battery. Both units would have fired over the heads of the men of the 136th, occupying the roadway just beyond the trees and post-battle wall.

“It was during this time that the colors of the 136th received their baptism of fire. They were not displayed as a target, but, carefully rolled and encased, stood leaning against the wall. A shell struck the wall near them and exploded, killing two men, wounding three others and striking the flag, which, when unfurled, showed the staff nearly one half cut asunder and a line of 13 holes somewhat larger than the stars in the field.” – Capt. J. W. Hand, 136th NY

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“And now a strange physical phenomenon is observed: the crashing, deafening, roar of our own with the distant thunder of the enemy’s guns, blend with the screaming shell in a rather noisy but effective lullaby. Drowsiness and, in a few cases, sleep ensues. The sun no longer glares fiercely down with a blistering heat, but gleams redly through the smoky air. The sense of great personal peril gradually gives place to apprehension of general disaster as our guns one by one cease firing, until silent…we rise somewhat cautiously to our feet and look across the valley. We see a gleam of gun barrels as the indistinct gray line emerges from the opposite woods, their line of march directed on the brigade next to our own left. They move out rapidly in good form…”   – Capt. J. W. Hand, 136th NY

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A haversack hangs from a knob of the monument of the 136th New York. The highly detailed work is evident in the individual holes of the strap and the buckle.

“Just as the enemy was passing from our view behind the grove, a regiment [the 8th Ohio] that had, unobserved by us, taken position a little to our left and some 200 yards in front, arose from the ground, where it had been lying, changed direction by a left wheel, and delivered a volley on the enemy’s flank. The regiment had a new stand of colors, and the silken stripes bore in golden letters the story of honorable service….we watched that flag as though it were the index-finger of fate. Again, the roar of our brazen-throated howitzers mingled with the crash of ten thousand muskets. Again that gallant little regiment gave volley after volley on the broken retreating ranks of the enemy. But all was obscured in smoke. Then, through a rift in the clouds of battle, was seen that solitary flag waving in victory, its gorgeous hues resplendent with the sunbeams which rested upon it, as if it alone, of all earth’s objects, was worthy to be thus glorified.” – Capt. J.W. Hand, 136th NY

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The position of the 136th New York as viewed from near the Emmitsburg Road. 

“The defeat of our army, and the capture or annihilation of the Eleventh Corps; the seizure of the Capitol; the recognition of the Confederacy; the dismemberment of the Union; a worthless currency; the payment of indemnity to the victors; the perpetuation of human slavery…These are some of the consequences likely to follow if they broke our lines. But they did not break through. Wave after wave of treason, billow after billow of rebellion rolled on, only to be dashed, broken and scattered against that solid wall of patriotism.”  – Capt. J.W. Hand, 136th NY

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Dedication of the monument to the 136th New York, 1888. 

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Rebuilding Stone Walls at Gettysburg

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Looking west from Taneytown Road toward Cemetery Ridge and the Copse of Trees. Pallets of stones will be used to rebuild missing walls.

Since 2000, Gettysburg National Military Park has undertaken numerous and significant projects to rehabilitate the battlefield to its 1863 appearance.  Projects have included removal of non-historic trees, planting of wooded areas that no longer had trees, health cuts to improve historic woodlots, re-planting historic orchards, building fences, removal of modern buildings, overhead utility lines, and more.

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Newly completed stone wall near Ziegler’s Grove (Wall B in the map below).  Note the more formal wall design which the War Department improved.

Now we’ve started rebuilding missing stone walls at Gettysburg at five sites along Cemetery Ridge and on the David McMillan farm near present day West Confederate Avenue.

These projects improve the visitor experience on the battlefield and overall understanding of the fighting of the battle. By seeing the open terrain, fences, fields and farm lands, visitors get a better sense of the opportunities and obstacles faced by the soldiers and their commanders.  In the Civil War, if you couldn’t see it, you couldn’t shoot it, so the long views we’re re-opened at Gettysburg help tell the story of sweeping infantry charges, and the artillery positions that dueled with each other and sent iron missiles into the infantry formations.

Orchards could provide cover and concealment.  Fences were often obstacles and stone walls could provide cover.  All of the elements affected the fighting of the battle and each one contributes in important ways to our visitors being able to see the battlefield through the soldiers’ eyes.

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The stone wall along the Leister Farm Lane is now under construction.  It will have an average height of about 30 inches (based on nearby walls) and will have a wooden rail (rider) fence on top of it.

Stone walls were originally created by farmers as they cleared their fields and pastures, placed as boundaries for fields and sometimes heightened with split rail “riders.” Using horses and rope slings, the largest rocks were dragged from nearby fields to the edge with medium-sized to smaller stones carefully stacked on top to add height.   Many of the original surviving stone walls in the southern end of the park still have look this way. The walls along Taneytown Road and adjacent to Culp’s Hill have boulders built into them too. By the mid-1850’s, years of farming and clearing fields yielded substantial walls throughout Adams County. Little did the farmers know, prior to 1863, that their well-constructed walls would be used by two armies during a major battle where in several cases these stone walls defined the Union and Confederate battle lines.

Soldiers alternately added to or tore down the walls in the path of the battle. Barricades and defensive works built during the battle were typically composed of medium-sized to small stones, easily picked up from the surrounding area or lifted from nearby walls.

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NPS crews working along the Leister Farm Lane – the Leister Barn is on the right.

But the soldiers knew that small stones only made their defensive work a hazard, since the small rocks could easily become projectiles if hit by a ball or shell fragment. It was backbreaking work, sometimes accomplished while under fire and the barricades built by soldiers of both armies still define the lines of battle today at Little Round Top and Culp’s Hill.

Many of Gettysburg’s historic stone walls disappeared over time. Our work to bring them back is based on research using historic maps, namely the Bachelder Isometric map (1863-1864), the G. K. Warren Map (1868), the U.S. War Department survey maps of 1893-1895, and rigorous research that has been completed by National Park Service (NPS) historians over the past three decades. Additionally, the photographic work of Alexander Gardner, Matthew Brady, Frederick Gutekunst and others guide this effort.

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Wall A and Wall B (on the map above) were both located on the property of David Ziegler. Ziegler owned a number of acres of meadow in 1863 just to the west of the Taneytown Road. According to the Warren Map a wall ran along the northern edge of the field, with another running north-south along its western boundary.  Just to the south was property owned by Peter Frey, and to the southwest the farm of Abraham Brian. William Kepler, of the 4th Ohio, recalled that his unit “marched forward into position between Woodruff’s Battery and the Taneytown road, on the brow of the hill in Zeigler’s Grove, with a rise of ground to the right toward the Cemetery.  From this point but little could be seen in any direction, whilst the occasional crack of a rifle could be heard, and whizzing of a ball through the air.  The men soon busied themselves getting their arms in the best possible order….The position of the brigade was soon changed by the left-flank, until it was clear of a ravine and in the rear of Woodruff’s Battery.”[i]

Leister Farm Lane (“C” on the map above) ran just to the south of Ziegler and Frey fields. Along the northern stretch of Lydia Leister’s property was a farm lane that allowed access from the Taneytown Road to her barn and western fields. It would have been used by many of the high-ranking officers of the Union Army, along with elements of the 2nd Corps, Artillery Reserve, Ambulance Corps and other regiments and batteries that needed to access Cemetery Ridge. A soldier in the 14th Connecticut recalled that his regiment moved into “a field opposite Meade’s headquarters on the Taneytown road.” He remembered that his regiment “….moved across the road, and passing over the wall at the low place below the cottage …advanced up the field and filing right past the barn to the field beyond the barn lane was placed in rear of the brigade on the slope at rear of the Brian premises….”[ii]

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Warren Map, Cemetery Ridge

The stonewall lining the Leister Farm lane is visible on the Warren Map, John Bachelder’s 1864 Isometric Map, and is barely visible in photographs of Meade’s Headquarters taken within days of the battle by Alexander Gardner. At the time of the battle this was most likely a low-stone wall with a wooden rider across the top. The original wall was removed in the early 1930’s by the War Department following the reconfiguration of Meade Avenue, which once connected the Taneytown Road with Hancock Avenue.

Like the Leister Farm Lane, the Peter Frey Farm Lane (“D”and “E” on the modern map above) provided access to the property from the Taneytown Road and would have been utilized by elements of the Army of the Potomac during their occupation of Cemetery Ridge. This wall is prominently visible in Bachelder’s Isometric Map, as well as the G. K. Warren Map.

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Frey and Leister Farm Lanes on the Isometric Map

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On Seminary Ridge the park will be adding 340 feet of stonewall on the David McMillan property (See map above). This wall, which in 1863 ran east to west along the southern boundary of the McMillan Orchard before transitioning into a Virginia worm fence, is clearly indicated on the Warren Map.

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The park is rebuilding the yellow section of this wall at the McMillan farm.

For most of these stone walls there is no photographic evidence of what they looked like, how high they were built, and whether they were stacked elegantly or thrown hastily together by the farmer clearing his fields. Few, if any, would have survived the battle unscathed. The walls being rebuilt are not meant to be a perfect recreation of what once existed, but rather a representation.  Their height, configuration, and proportions are modeled after similar walls photographed following the battle as well as those that have survived intact the ravages of time and progress.

img_6595The project is funded by the NPS.  The NPS Historic Preservation Training Center is doing the work, using 1200 tons of field stone which came from eight counties in Pennsylvania. The materials cost $198,000.  The work will continue for the next 1-2 months, depending on the winter weather.

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Katie Lawhon and Christopher Gwinn, December 1, 2016

[i] William Kepler, History of the Three Months’ and Three Years’ Service…of the Fourth Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry in the War for the Union (Cleveland: Leader Printing Company, 1886), 126-127.

[ii] Henry S. Stevens, Souvenir of Excursions to the Battlefields by the Society of the Fourteenth Connecticut Regiment and Reunion at Antietam September 1891 (Washington: Gibson Brothers, 1893), 11.

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